The Libyan conflict and its controversial roots
In , he encouraged the Arab World to fight the West. Ronald Reagan famously called Gaddafi the "mad dog of the Middle East" after the Berlin nightclub bombing in that killed one American serviceman. Gaddafi distanced himself and his country even further from the U. A series of U.
The Middle East Journal
In Gaddafi turned over a new leaf, and by , President George W. Bush lifted sanctions and Gaddafi was welcomed back into the international community after he promised to renounce terrorism. In September , Gaddafi gave a rambling minute speech at the U. The previous summer had been filled with criticism over Scotland releasing Abdel Basset al-Megrahi, one of the accused attackers found guilty in the Pan Am bombing.
With the Arab Spring of spreading to Libya, Gaddafi found himself as a target of protests. International leaders accused the colonel of committing human rights violations by killing innocent civilians, which lead the U. Security Council to issue a no-fly zone and allow NATO to do whatever necessary to protect civilians short of an invasion.
After Gaddafi spent eight months in hiding , during which he accused NATO of killing innocent civilians and even wrote to President Obama asking him to stop the NATO air raids , Libyan rebels finally succeeded in bringing Gaddafi's year-rule to an end. US Edition U.
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Newsletters Coupons. At home, Libyans were to be empowered by permanent mobilization in the service of Qadhafi's ideology of a stateless, egalitarian society based on an idiosyncratic blend of Islamic and Marxist precepts Qaddafism, p.
Qadhafiadmitted in his Green Book that the Jamahiriya system would ultimately reflect the wishes of the strongest, namely himself, thus subjecting Libyans to a totalitarian, often brutal, one-man, personal rule. Alison Pargeter skillfully covers Qadhafi's international adventurism, serious defeats, and internal challenges, none of which deterred him from pursuing his twin goals of revolution at home and abroad.uvojicezig.cf
How Qaddafi Fooled Libya and the World
But having failed to transform Libya into a revolutionary society, Qadhafimanaged to neutralize his enemies, especially the better organized Islamist groups originating in Cyrenaican towns in the east. He then reverted to traditional alliances with powerful families and began manipulating a resurgent tribal system p. His own sons took part in Qadhafi's schemes, with the eldest, Sayf al-Islam, ostensibly proclaiming to the outside world his vision of a reformed, democratic Libya at critical intervals to defuse various crises and leverage the lifting of international sanctions and hopes for reforms following Qadhafi's surrender of Libya's weapons of mass destruction WMDs in late Sayf's cynical manipulation of public opinion explains, as the author rightly suggests, his changing course at the beginning of the rebellion and his complete identification with his father, as manifested in his unexpected, brutally aggressive speech to a bewildered nation on February 20, pp.
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